Biletul 30 information or manipulation?

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Biletul 30 information or manipulation?

Mesajde mell pe Vin Apr 25, 2008 2:57 pm


30.What does advertising mean to you: information or manipulation? Give arguments to support your ideas.
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mell
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Re: Biletul 30 information or manipulation?

Mesajde ancanka pe Mar Mai 06, 2008 7:47 pm

mell scrie:
30.What does advertising mean to you: information or manipulation? Give arguments to support your ideas.

Since advertisers don't supply any of the adverse information of their products, it would have to be manipulation. Advertisers are one sided and there is no balance.

Manipulation. All adverts are designed to make us buy their tat. They want your money!


In order to persuade or deceive, a person deliberately breaks one of the four conversational maxims:

* Quantity: Information given will be full (as per expected by the listener) and without omission.
* Quality: information given will be truthful and correct.
* Relation: information will be relevant to the subject matter of the conversation in hand.
* Manner: things will be presented in a way that enables others to understand and with aligned non-verbal language.

Example

A student is late handing in an essay. They approach the lecture trembling and weeping, saying how they have just been dumped by their long-term partner and forgot to hand in the essay (they had done it in time, honestly!).
So what?
Using it

Persuade by omitting information, telling untruths, going off the subject and confusing the other person. Use excuses. Be economical with the truth. Woffle.
Defending

Question what you are told, especially you find yourself changing your mind as a result. Probe for detail. Seek corroborating evidence. Watch the body language.
ancanka
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Re: Biletul 30 information or manipulation?

Mesajde musa paradisiaca pe Joi Iun 19, 2008 9:25 pm

mell scrie:
30.What does advertising mean to you: information or manipulation? Give arguments to support your ideas.


"If I were starting life over again, I am inclined to think I would go into advertising business in preferrance to almost any other. The general raising of standards of modern civilization among all groups of people during the past half century would have been impossible without that spreading of the knowledge of higher standards by means of advertising." ( Franklin Delano Roosevelt )

"The philosophy behind much advertising is based on the old observation that every man is really two men - the man he is, and the man he wants to be." ( William Feather )

"The deeper problems connected with advertising come less from the unscrupulous of our "deceivers" than from the pleasure in being deceived; less from the desire to seduce than from the desire to be seduced." ( Daniel J. Boorstin )

"Promise, large promise is the soul of advertising !" ( Samuel Johnson )

"Advertising is legalized lying !" ( George Herbert Wells )

"Advertising is the rattling of a stick inside a swill bucket !" ( George Orwell )

Introduction :

- advertising is the means by which goods are promoted and marketed in industrial societies;
- advertising researchers have different opinions on it : that it persuades people to buy things that are often not needed, or that it is part of the mechanism by which capitalist societies are preserved, or that it is simply another cultural resource, almost an art form to be discussed and analyzed by ad-consumers who tend to become increasingly sophisticated about advertisers' claims;
- as consumers are changing it is also argued that advertisements are changing, becoming a feature of post-modernity;
- in the 20th century, advertisements attempted to persuade consumers of the utility, efficiency, or reliability of the product;
- now advertising tends to associate the product with a life-style on the assumption that consumers are more interested in style than in the utility;
- written texts have been replaced by visual images, and seriousness with playful irony;

Development :

A. The Advertising Consumer : a Possibly Manipulated Ad-Consumer

- advertising's foundation and economic lifeblood is the mass media;
- and the primary purpose of the mass-media is to deliver an audience to advertisers ( just as the primary purpose of television programs is to deliver an audience for commercials );
- in ads women are shown almost exclusively as housewives or sex objects;
- the housewife, pathologically obsessed by cleanliness and lemon-fresh scents debates about her husband's "ring around the collar";
- the "new woman" in the commercials of the recent years is generally presented as the "superwoman" who manages to do all the work at home and on the job with the help of a product (of course, not of her husband or children or friends );
- the "liberated woman" in the commercials of the recent years owes her independence and self esteem by the products she uses;
- psychologists have discovered that a man's hidden desire for power leads him to buy the petrol whose publicity emphasizes its power property;
- they also discovered that people who feel they should clean their teeth more often choose a toothpaste which removes their guilt feelings by promising protection with only one brushing a day;
- some combinations of colours sell a product better than others : blue attracts men; red attracts women; and transparent packages sell some products best of all;
- the phrases "a holiday chocolate" and "a sunshine drink" ( though they say little of the products they describe ) help to sell them by raising pleasant ideas in your mind;
- adolescents are particularly vulnerable, because they are new and inexperienced ad-consumers, and the prime target of many advertisements;
- adolescents are in the process of learning their values and roles, and developing their self-concepts;
- most teen-agers are sensitive to peer pressure and find it difficult or even question the dominant cultural messages perpetuated and reinforced by advertising;
- the person who is a slave to fashion is often also a slave to his or her own emotions - emotions that can be manipulated by the fashion advertising industry;
- on the most obvious level, society ( and especially teen agers ) learn just the stereotypes from the advertising messages that proliferate in the mass media;
- advertising creates a mythical world in which no one is ever ugly, overweight, poor, struggling, or disabled ( either physically or mentally ), a world in which people talk only about products;


B. The Advertising Consumer : a Probably Informed Ad-Consumer

- advertising is an over 100 billion dollars a year, and affect all of us throughout our lives;
- we are each exposed to over 2000 ads a day, constituting perhaps the most powerful educational force in society;
- the average adult will spend one and a half years of his life watching television commercials;
- but the advertisements sell a great deal more than products : they sell values, images and concepts of success and worth, love and sexuality, popularity, and normalcy;
- advertisements tell us who we are and who we should be;
- in a magazine advertisement ( or any other form of print ) there are two ways that information is communicated : through the text and through pictorial and designed elements;
- we can examine the text to determine what appeals are being pressed and what means are used to lead the reader/viewer to desire the product;
- whether or not advertising ( and other tools of persuasion ) are leading us to higher levels of development is questionable;
- one thing is quite evident : knowing the strategies used by the people who work at creating and shaping our desire is important;
- knowing the strategies used by the ad-creators we can make more rational decisions and avoid manipulation;

C. The Advertising Consumer : a Desirously Info-Manipulating Ad-Consumer

- when we deal with advertisements we should be concerned with some or all of the following matters :
a). the general ambiance of the ad, the mood it creates, and how it does this;
b). the design of the ad, if it uses axial balance or some other form, and how are the basic components of the ad arranged;
c). the relationship between pictorial elements and written material, and what it tells us;
d). the spatiality in the ad, if there is a lot of "white" space, or if it is full of graphic and written elements ( that is if it is "busy" );
e). the signs and the symbols we find, and what role these signs and symbols play in the ad;
f). the figures ( men, women, children, animals ) in the ad, what can be said about their facial expressions, poses, hairstyle, age, sex, hair colour, ethnicity, education, occupation, relationship ( of one to the others );
g). the ad's background, where the action in the ad takes place, and what significance this background has;
h). what action takes place in the ad and its signification ( this is called the PLOT of the ad );
i). what theme or themes we find in the ad ( the plot of an ad may involve a woman and a man drinking, but the theme might be : jealousy, faithlessness, ambition, or passion );
j). the language of the ad, if this provides info or generates some kind of an emotional response, or both; what techniques are used by the copy writer ( humour, alliteration, "definitions" of life, comparisons, );
k). the typefaces used and the impression these typefaces transmit;
l). the item that is advertised and what role it plays in its culture and society;
m). sociological, political, economic, or cultural attitudes indirectly reflected in the ad ( an ad may be about a pair of blue jeans, but it might, indirectly reflect such matters as sexism, alienation, stereotyped thinking, conformism, generational conflict, loneliness, elitism );

Conclusion :

- advertisements are designed to persuade and create temptation and desire;
- in the beginning advertisements were plain statements that such and such a product was sold at such and such a place at such and such a price;
- in time, persuasive techniques have become more and more effective, thanks in part to psychologists who have analyzed the motives and tested the reactions of millions of shoppers;
- the advertising copy- writer knows that some words mean more that they seem to mean and he can benefit from the associations which cling to certain words;
- advertisements inform as well as persuade, stimulate trade, and help maintain full employment;
- however, the claims of advertisements should not be accepted without careful and critical reading and judgment;
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